It seems like we've only recently gotten to a place where most people aren't freaked out when they see the word 'oil' associated with skincare. We now know that not all oils are many different "families" of oils that interact with the skin in different ways. But there's one notable exception that even many seasoned skincare aficionados will steer clear of: mineral oil.
The purported issue at hand? Mineral oil is derived from petroleum, which tends to raise some concern upon first inspection. But the truth is, dermatologists agree that mineral oil is completely safe—even beneficial—to use in your skincare routine, so long as your skin type is a fit for the ingredient.
Wondering if mineral oil deserves a place in your skincare routine? Ahead, three board-certified dermatologists explain the benefits of mineral oil, how to use it, and which skin types should steer clear.
Meet the Expert
- Marnie Nussbaum, MD, FAAD, is a dermatologist based in New York City.
- Claire Chang, MD, is a board-certified dermatologist at Unionderm in New York City.
- Gary Goldenberg, MD, is a New York City dermatologist as well as an assistant clinical professor at The Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City.
TYPE OF INGREDIENT: Moisturizer
MAIN BENEFITS: Locks moisture into the skin, softens skin, and improves skin barrier function.
WHO SHOULD USE IT: "I recommend mineral oil for those with dry, sensitive skin, and it can even be used for those with conditions such as eczema or psoriasis," says Chang. She notes that not only is it a good moisturizing ingredient, but it also has a very low risk of allergic reactions or irritation. Mineral oil products aren't recommended for acne-prone skin.
HOW OFTEN CAN YOU USE IT: This depends largely on the specific product you're using and how dry your skin is, but generally speaking, it's fine to use once or twice daily.
WORKS WELL WITH: Humectant ingredients such as glycerin or hyaluronic acid, which attract moisture to the skin, that the mineral oil can then lock-in.
DON’T USE WITH: Because it is very occlusive, don't use it with pore-clogging ingredients, notes Nussbaum, particularly if you start to notice blackheads and whiteheads. (More on whether or not it can clog your pores in a minute).
What Is Mineral Oil?
Simply put, mineral oil is a colorless and odorless petrolatum derivative; when used in cosmetics, it's highly refined and purified and, therefore, does not contain the contaminants that unrefined petroleum has been known for, explains Nussbaum. Still, this is why it's often a no-no in 'clean' formulas. That being said, "Mineral oil has been a mainstay of healing and moisturizing skincare products for decades, included in well-known products such as Vaseline, Aquaphor, and baby oil," points out Chang. Because it's a large molecule, it has limited penetration and instead sits on top of the skin, what's known as an occlusive ingredient. This is exactly what makes it a good option in moisturizers—since it traps moisture—but also why it gets a bad rap for being pore-clogging.
More commonly known as petroleum jelly, petrolatum also has a long shelf life, which makes it an often-used ingredient in many skincare and makeup products sold today. Types of products that tend to feature mineral oil in their roster of ingredients include “face creams, body creams, and ointments, as well as eye creams, foundations, liquid makeup removers, and wipes,” says Paul Jarrod Frank, MD, celebrity cosmetic dermatologist and founder of PFRANKMD.
Petroleum jelly is composed of natural mineral oils and waxes. It helps seal in moisture, soothe cuts, and accelerate the skin healing process.
Benefits of Mineral Oil For Skin
While mineral oil doesn't have any anti-aging or antioxidant effects on the skin, as many other oils do, it is a choice occlusive, moisturizing ingredient.
- Seals moisture into the skin: Think of mineral oil as creating a barrier between your skin and the outside world, protecting it from outside elements like wind and pollution, says Nussbaum. It's also why it's been shown in studies to reduce trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL), or the loss of water through the skin.
- Smooths and softens skin: Any oil, mineral oil included, should help leave skin feeling softer, as it is meant to slip into the cracks in between cells to create a smoother texture.
- Can be used on skin or hair: The type of mineral oil found in skin and hair care products is graded as safe for consumption by the Food and Drug Administration. “The mineral oil we would find in skincare is typically rated as food-grade,” says Joanna Vargas, celebrity facialist and founder of Joanna Vargas.
- Doesn't clog pores: Regarding whether or not it’s good for the skin, according to our experts, mineral oil itself is non-comedogenic, or not pore-clogging, so using it alone won’t leave your pores filled with added gunk.
- Protects the skin: Due to its naturally occlusive, barrier-creating tendencies, says Frank, “It is best for people with dry skin as it creates a protective barrier. It creates a protective barrier for the skin for hydration and locks in moisture.”
- Available over-the-counter: Unlike some super skincare ingredients, mineral oil products are available in most beauty and drugstores.
Side Effects of Mineral Oil
This is one ingredient that has a low likelihood of causing any kind of skin reaction, says Goldenberg, which is why it's often recommended for sensitive skin types. The big sticking point here is the pore-clogging question.
All the derms we spoke with agree that if you're acne-prone or notice more blackheads or whiteheads after using mineral oil-rich products, skip this ingredient.
That being said, "While it's been anecdotally associated with exacerbation of acne in acne-prone patients, human studies have failed to confirm its comedogenicity," says Chang. The bottom line: Proceed with caution if you are prone to pimples, and know that this may not be the best ingredient for you.
However, because mineral oil tends to form a protective layer on the skin, it may trap some other ingredients onto that top layer of the epidermis, which might lead to clogged pores if that ingredient is known to be pore-clogging. “While mineral oil can potentially clog pores, it has a relatively low comedogenicity score in various studies, which is one indicator of propensity to clog pores,” says Iris Rubin, MD, dermatologist and founder of SEEN Hair Care. “It is occlusive though, and can therefore trap other ingredients on the skin, potentially leading to clogged pores.”
Oftentimes, mineral oil is featured as an ingredient in combination with other ingredients within a product. If you have acne-prone skin or have pores that are especially prone to clogging, be sure to check your product labels to see and feel the best results. “It is always important to look at a finished formula to be sure if it is non-comedogenic since the way ingredients combine really matters,” Rubin adds.
That said, the consensus regarding mineral oil is that it’s better left for dry skin types that aren’t prone to acne symptoms, like pimples, blackheads, or cysts.
How to Use It
"The best time to apply mineral oil is a few minutes after showering when the skin is slightly damp since mineral oil will help lock some of the moisture into the skin," suggests Chang. And if you're using any other products with moisturizing ingredients, such as hyaluronic acid, or protective actives such as antioxidants, make the mineral oil product the final step in your routine to seal all of that in, she adds.
Both Chang and Goldenberg like this multitasker. "It's recommended for dry skin, scars, and stretch marks, with clinical data to support each use," says Goldenberg. Along with mineral oil, it also contains a blend of other plant-based oils meant to help smooth and soften skin.
Another one of Chang's picks, a combination of mineral and almond oils, plus glycerin, nourishes and moisturizes the skin. Slather it on liberally post-shower for almost instantaneous softness.
Mineral oil and petroleum jelly, aka Vaseline, are closely related and in this formula, you get both. For those who feel Vaseline might be too goopy, this has a much more lightweight and fast-absorbing feel. The addition of soothing aloe makes it a great pick on those days when you've had a little too much sun (tsk, tsk).
Nussbaum loves this cult classic just as much as the rest of us: "This ointment is another great multi-purpose product that can be used for extra dry or even cracked skin," she says. Due to the occlusive agents found in the formula, mineral oil included, it’s an excellent skin protectant, she adds, noting that she often recommends it for chapped heels and hands.
Byrdie editors (and makeup artists and celebs) sing the praises of this cult-classic French pharmacy brand over and over. But it's not just the beloved makeup remover that should get all the love. This cream is a good choice for dry, itchy skin, and combines mineral oil with hydrating glycerin. To the point of the ingredient being good for sensitive skin, this has even earned the National Eczema Association seal of approval.
"This is a luxurious daily moisturizer with a rich texture that plumps the skin and helps to smooth fine lines," says Nussbaum. "It contains a potent combination of skin restorative ingredients, including sea kelp and other nutrients and minerals." Not to mention a high concentration of mineral oil; it's the second ingredient listed.
Does mineral oil clog pores?
Dermatologists agree that—from the human studies they currently have access to results from—there hasn't been any scientific evidence that mineral oil is comedogenic (pore-clogging).
Can mineral oil be used on acne-prone skin?
Though scientific evidence doesn't yet back up whether or not it clogs pores, dermatologists say to pay close attention to your skin while using mineral oil if you're acne-prone, as ingredients can have varying effects on different skin types.
Is mineral oil "clean?"
The term "clean" in regards to skincare formulations is not regulated, so there is no clear definition (here is Byrdie's definition, by the way). Mineral oil is made from a petroleum derivative. And while dermatologists seem to agree that the refining process that goes into adding mineral oil to skincare products purifies the substance of all contaminants (making the ingredient completely safe), for some, it's still not technically a "clean" beauty product as defined by most retailers.