Having dry, brittle nails that break or tear isn't just annoying—it can be downright painful and even an indicator of a nutritional deficiency or infection. If you find yourself suffering from nail breakage, there are a handful of lifestyle changes that can help your nails get back to healthy, smooth, and strong.
We reached out to a dietitian, a dermatologist, and, of course, a licensed nail artist to fill us in on how to prevent your nails from breaking, once and for all. From exactly how to bolster your diet to which environmental factors may be wreaking havoc on your digits, these experts tackle nail health from every angle. They weigh in on the bad habits to break, the biotin myths to beware of, and your best bets for achieving the nails you've always wanted. Head below for all the expert-approved tips to improve your nail health today.
Remember you are what you eat.
Like so much of our outward appearance—from how clear our skin is to how shiny our hair is—our nail health begins with the nutrients we put in our body. "Eating a well-balanced diet as well as increasing your biotin intake is your best bet for helping to strengthen your nails," explains registered dietitian Melissa Bailey, MS, RD, LDD of The Nourished Fork. "Biotin is a B vitamin found in a variety of foods."
Meet the Expert
Melissa Bailey is a clinical dietitian in Philadelphia and founder of The Nourished Fork where she shares simple recipes, advice for eating well while traveling, and nutrition tips.
Bailey notes the highest amounts of biotin are found in animal proteins, like eggs, chicken, and salmon. However, you can also consume biotin in plant-based foods including nuts, seeds, spinach, and sweet potatoes. "For comparison, an egg yolk contains approximately 10 micrograms of biotin while a serving of spinach has seven micrograms," says Bailey. "I always recommend getting any vitamin and mineral naturally from your diet, as your body absorbs them better from diet than in a supplement form.
When necessary, take a multivitamin.
While biotin supplements are a buzzy product in the beauty space, they're no longer seen by experts as the best option. "Although dermatologists used to recommend biotin as an over-the-counter treatment to help strengthen nails, a 2017 FDA warning highlighted that biotin can interfere with lab tests—so we no longer encourage routine biotin supplementation," explains board-certified dermatologist Peter Hashim, M.D. M.H.S., who recommends focusing more on a balanced diet.
Meet the Expert
Dr. Peter Hashim is a New York City-based dermatologist who specializes in complex medical dermatology.
Bailey also recommends prioritizing real, vitamin-rich foods to get your nutrients. "Your best bet is a healthy diet, and if you still feel like you need an extra boost, a daily multivitamin should be all you need to get the right amount of biotin for strong nails," she says. Bailey notes that the adequate intake for biotin in adults is 30 micrograms. "Because biotin is water-soluble, meaning your body excretes what you don't need, higher levels are typically okay to consume," she assures. "However, that does not mean you should go out and take massive doses of biotin as your body can't use it all."
Keep your nails moisturized.
"The number one thing you can do to avoid breakage is to keep your hands and nails well moisturized!" insists nail artist and technician Sarah Thompson of Chalkboard Nails. "Well-moisturized nail beds grow healthier nails and well-moisturized nails bend and flex instead of breaking." Thompson also notes not only do moisturized hands promote healthy nail growth, but they make hands and nails feel and look better too. "Regular lotion application can help prevent signs of aging in hands as well," Thompson adds.
Meet the Expert
Sarah Thompson is a Phoenix-based licensed nail artist and technician as well as the editor and creator of Chalkboard Nails.
To keep hands and nails moisturized, Thompson says cuticle oil, cuticle cream, and hand lotion are all great options. "Cuticle oil is one of the best things you can use on your nails," assures Thompson. "Not only does it promote flexibility, but if you are wearing polish or gel, it can prolong your manicure. She advises applying it as often as you want, aiming for at least once a day.
Avoid harsh chemicals.
"Environmental exposures are also important to consider, as frequent contact with cleaning detergents or even overly aggressive manicures can damage nails," warns Hashim. Nails exposed to household cleansers begin to thin and dry out, especially if you're using chemicals like acetone or bleach. The same goes for harsh antibacterial kitchen soap that you might be using to clean your dishes. Make sure to wear gloves when using harsh chemical cleaners and avoid nail polish removers with high concentrations of acetone.
Use a strengthening base coat.
It may seem counterintuitive, but nail polish can actually be beneficial to weak nails and even help prevent them from breaking—as long as it's the right formula. "Using a base coat with your polish can add an extra layer of protection, but unless you're using a strengthening base coat, it's more for the adherence of the polish versus improving nail health," notes Thompson.
Remove your gel polish the right way.
"Don't peel your gels off!" warns Thompson. "Remember the gel is always going to be stronger than the top layer of your nails, so when you peel your gel it will take some of your nail off with it." Thompson explains when properly applied and removed, gel polish shouldn't damage your nails. "If you feel like your nails are weakened, there's nothing wrong with taking a few weeks off to rehab and moisturize your nails.
Use a nail strengthener.
"Nail strengtheners can be a great option for those with thin and brittle nails," explains Thompson. "There are different formulas available to target specific problems you may be experiencing." Still, it's best to approach nail health holistically and not rely solely on products to correct the damage. "Keep in mind it's always good to use them in conjunction with better moisturizing habits to create healthy nail growth," says Thompson.
Keep it short (and rounded).
Keeping your nails shorter can keep them from snagging and ultimately tearing, but even the shape of your nails can reduce your chances of damage. "If you've ever had square nails, you've probably experienced a broken corner or a tear on the side of your nail," says Thompson. "Round nails experience these problems much less frequently."
Resist the urge to pick or peel.
Just as you're not supposed to pick at your face when you have a breakout, it's best if you leave your fingers alone when your nails are breaking or your polish is peeling. "Try to keep a keratin-based strengthener or serum handy and apply it whenever you notice damage," suggests Thompson. "Replace the picking habit with self-care!"
If problems persist, get an in-person medical evaluation.
If you've adhered to the advice above and are still suffering from weak and brittle nails, it may be time to get a medical evaluation. "Nails can be affected by a variety of dermatologic conditions, including psoriasis and nail fungus," warns Hashim. When it comes to caring for your nail health, he advises "the best approach is a balanced diet, gentle nail care, and seeking an in-person evaluation if you are concerned about any nail diseases."