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For years beauty editors at the Byrdie offices have raved about certain cult-favorite retinol products: Shani Darden's Resurface Retinol Reform ($88) is a favorite of our wellness editor, Victoria, Peter Thomas Roth's Professional 3% Retinoid Plus ($82) is beloved by our editorial director, Faith, and The Ordinary's Retinol 0.2% in Squalane ($5) is hugely popular with our readers.
But there are some among us who have tried all of them and more, with few to no actual results. Even if we apply as directed on the packaging, drifting off to sleep with dreams of tight, glowing skin, we might wake up to find our faces looking duller than when we use our typical vitamin C. So what gives? Why is this magic product just not as magical for all of us?
We spoke to Dr. Ted Lain of Sanova Dermatology, cosmetic chemist Vanessa Thomas, of product development firm Freelance Formulations, and Dr. Ranella Hirsch, board certified dermatologist and co-founder of Atolla, to get the lowdown on the effects of retinol.
Type of Ingredient: Exfoliant
Main Benefits: Reduces wrinkles, exfoliates, prevents aging.
Who Should Use It: In general, people with acne or people who are concerned about the appearance of aging skin. It's not recommended for people with sensitive skin due to its ability to irritate the skin.
How Often You Can Use It: Once a day maximum, typically once every few days.
Works Well With: Anything hydrating, to offset the irritation.
Don't Use With: Vitamin C; other exfoliants like glycolic acid, and alpha hydroxy acid (AHA); and astringents, as doing so may irritate the skin.
What is Retinol?
First things first, let's go over the definition of retinol. "Retinol is derived from Vitamin A. Once it is absorbed into the skin, it is converted to the active form, retinoic acid, for which our skin cells have receptors," says Lain. "Once bound to the receptors, retinoic acid causes changes including, but not limited to, faster turnover of skin cells, increased collagen production, and lightening of brown spots."
Benefits of Retinol for Skin
• Clears skin: According to Thomas, retinol has "anti-aging, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant properties, anti-microbial properties, and enhances anti-acne properties." In other words, it's a powerhouse.
• Lessens wrinkles and scars: "With continued use, vitamin A slowly improves the skin's appearance. It smooths the skin's texture by lessening visible wrinkles, lines, acne scar indents, large pores, scarring, and brown spots," notes celebrity esthetician Renée Rouleau.
• Smooths skin texture: "Retinol works over time to retexturize and resurface your skin," says Christine Chang, the co-CEO and co-founder of Glow Recipe.
But here's the thing: According to Rouleau, most people won't notice an improvement for about two months, which is why you have to stick with the program. "The product is doing something for your skin, whether you are seeing the results right away or not," she says. Even without any immediate improvement, however, retinol remains a powerhouse—it just requires a little patience.
Retinol vs. Retinoids
Retinol is the term for over-the-counter vitamin A derivatives; retinoid is the term for all products with vitamin A, regardless of whether they need to be prescribed. All retinols are retinoids, but not all retinoids are, strictly speaking, retinol.
Side Effects of Retinol
This all being said, many women in the K-beauty community advise against retinol completely. "I never use retinol," says Alicia Yoon, skincare guru and founder of Korean skincare brand Peach & Lily. "I have very sensitive skin and there is always an adjustment period to retinols," she explains. "During this period, skin can become more fragile—thinner, basically—and results in increased sensitivity, and at times, peeling and flaking. I find that a lot of my clients also struggle with the initial adjustment period of using a retinol. On the other hand, with consistent use, after that adjustment period, there are studies that show that retinol can actually help thicken the epidermis.
There are two conflicting points of view. Those that tell you to never give up on your retinol, make it through the initial adjustment period, and you'll be better off in the end. And, those who believe you should work with the products that keep your skin happy and bright from day one. It's up to you (and your derm) how you choose to treat your skin.
How to Use Retinol
There are safe ways to use retinol. "People with fair, sensitive skin tend to be more susceptible to initial side effects of using retinol, such as redness, peeling, and sun sensitivity," Lain notes. "In order to mitigate these side effects, I often advise these patients to both mix the retinol with moisturizer and start using it every other night for the first 3-4 weeks, increasing as tolerated to every night. Depending on the skin type, and other skincare products being used, I often start retinol in the .3 to .5% range, increasing to 1% after 2-3 months. Care should be taken to avoid pairing a retinol product with other skincare that can also cause irritation or redness, such as hydroxy acids." For extra sensitive skin, we at Byrdie like putting retinol on over our moisturizer to create a barrier to start out with.
But unlike what you're often told to do, Lain doesn't steer clear of Vitamin C. In fact, he often doubles down using Vitamin C to make his retinol more effective. "Vitamin C works very differently than retinol to exert beneficial effects on the skin. As an antioxidant, Vitamin C helps stop free radicals from wreaking havoc in our skin. Free radicals, caused by poor diet, sun exposure, stress, and pollution, cause degradation of collagen, DNA mutation, and overall contribute to premature aging," says Lain. "Since retinol and Vitamin C work in such different, yet mutually beneficial, ways, it is very rare for me not to start a patient on one of these products without the other.” However, we'd recommend that if you have sensitive skin, you don't use the two at the same time to try to avoid serious redness and irritation.
Hirsch has a similar answer to Lain when asked how to start use of retinol. "S-L-O-W-L-Y!" she emphasizes. She even gives us a handy tip: "People almost always use much more of this ingredient than they need to. For the entire face and neck, a drop the size of a pea is more than enough. Pat it on your clean dry skin in the evening, and rub all over. You should be able to take a tissue and stick onto your face and have it fall off; that is a proper application. If the tissue sticks, you are using more than you need and will likely experience irritation. I typically have folks start it 1-2 per week, every 3-4 nights alternating with a very rich moisturizing product on the other nights."
The Best Products with Retinol
When you're first starting out with retinol, gentle is the name of the game—which is why Shani Darden's product isn't just one of our favorites, but one of the best retinols out there right now. This product contains a 5%-grade, mild retinol, offering all of the upsides (brightening, texture-improvement, etc.) of retinol, but with less potential for the irritation of harsher products.
Drunk Elephant aren't just behind some of our favorite masks of all time, they're also behind some of our favorite treatments of all time, like their A-Passioni Retinol Cream ($74). With vegan retinol derived from passionfruit, this treatment can be used either as a mask or as a high-concentration, overnight treatment.
This retinol isn't just a favorite of ours. In fact, it's seemingly a favorite of pretty much everyone's. That could have something to do with its light-as-air formula, or it could be a product of the combination of nourishing oils with serious skincare benefits. Whatever it is, this retinol was made to be less irritating than your typical retinol—and unlike most, it actually does the job.
Plenty of product lines are built around retinol, but few are as well designed or efficacious as Verso, a company that touts Retinol 8 as its superstar ingredient. Retinol 8, like others on this list, has been formulated to cut out the irritation associated with regular retinol use. It's also said to be really hydrating.
The Ordinary have made their name through budget-friendly and effective products, and this potent retinoid is a fan-favorite. Ringing in at only $10 with a high (2%) concentration of active retinoid, it's a steal for anyone who wants to dip their toes into retinoids but doesn't want to overcommit. Be careful, though—2% is a lot, so use it sparingly and with days between, at least at first.
On the opposite end of the spectrum, if you have super sensitive skin, you might want to go with a product like this one from Paula's Choice. It has just 0.03% retinol—so you can really get your face used to the product, without any kind of rash.
This face oil first became famous on Instagram (likely due to the gorgeous green/blue/gold color scheme) but it's worth all the hype behind it. It uses evening primrose and brown seaweed meant to calm and hydrate your skin, so it can stand the whopping 1.2% retinol included. Still, work your way up with this one.
Shao Y, He T, Fisher GJ, Voorhees JJ, Quan T. Molecular basis of retinol anti-ageing properties in naturally aged human skin in vivo. Int J Cosmet Sci. 2017;39(1):56-65. doi:10.1111/ics.12348