I've Tried Hundreds of Serums—These Are the 19 Best

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Best Face Serums

Byrdie / Chloe Jeong

Until a few years ago, I didn't really see the point in using a serum. I thought my moisturizer could do everything my skin needed, and it was just a ploy by skincare companies to steal all my money. Obviously, I was gravely mistaken. Those telltale late-20s fine lines (they were faint, but they were there) started to crop up, and I realized I hadn't been taking care of my skin as meticulously as I thought. It became very clear that the super concentrations of nourishing and resurfacing ingredients that serums boast were not only helpful but vital in a skincare regimen. For results, I had to start doing some research in the anti-aging sector of things, and I had to do it fast.

Over the course of those few years, I became a serum aficionado. I don't want to toot my own horn, but I tested hundreds of serums and noted which ones worked and which to move on from. I noticed differences in the brightness of my skin, the tone and texture, evenness, elasticity, plumpness, and, yes, a reduction in fine lines and wrinkles. Below, find the face serums I think are worth their salt—no matter your skin concerns. Because really, there's no need to waste your money on skincare that won't suit your needs (and will cost a pretty penny at that).

Keep scrolling for the best of the best when it comes to serums.

Our Top Picks
This OG skincare product combines vitamins and ferulic acid to protect skin and improve signs of aging.
AHA and BHA team up in this serum to tackle texture, fade dark marks, and prevent future breakouts.
Hyaluronic acid and retinol in this serum work to impart hydration and battle signs of aging.
Rejuvenate skin cells, boost the production of collagen, and get youthful-looking skin with this serum.
Calm skin's redness with help from this plant-based serum, which includes ingredients like Cardiospermum, echium, and sunflower.
A blend of 9 different acids in this formula are present to create an instant glow on your skin.
Try this serum to combat acne, buff away fine lines, and reduce redness.
If you have experienced sun damage and skin discoloration, look no further than this serum full of acids and B-vitamins.
A Byrdie fave, this serum balances skin from the effects of acne and aging.
It contains 4 simple ingredients—water, hydrolyzed placental protein, phenoxyethanol, ethylhexylglycerin—and fights acne and dark circles.
In This Article

Best Overall: SkinCeuticals C E Ferulic

SkinCeuticals C E Ferulic
What We Like
  • Protects against free radicals

  • Jampacked with vitamin C

  • Evens skin tone

What We Don't Like
  • Sticky consistency

  • Has a certain smell

  • Possibly expensive

Here it is, the GOAT: SkinCeuticals C E Ferulic is the love of my life and the only serum I could never live without. It has changed my skin completely over the last few years, offering a glowing, bright mug where tired, sallow skin used to be. It uses a synergistic antioxidant combination of ferulic acid and pure vitamin C and E to enhance your skin's protection against environmental damage caused by free radicals (so it's especially perfect if you live in an urban area) and improves signs of aging and photodamage all in one shot. 

Benefits: Firms and smooths skin | Skin Type: Dry, sensitive | Dosage: 4-5 drops | Size: 1 fl. oz | Cruelty-Free: No | Byrdie Clean: No

What Our Editors Say

"I've been obsessed with CE Ferulic since my career as a beauty editor began, and it's one of the only products I've stuck with for that long. It's a dermatologist and editor favorite for good reason—it evens skin tone and discoloration and protects your skin from free radicals like sun damage and pollution. It's one of the greats." Hallie Gould, Associate Editorial Director

Best Budget: Rosen Skincare Paloma Serum

Rosen
What We Like
  • All natural

  • Tackles tricky skin

  • Natural vitamin C

What We Don't Like
  • Possibly unsuitable for sensitive skin

  • Thick consistency

Without breaking the bank, this all-natural serum tackles a number of skin concerns, such as improving texture, fading dark marks, and even preventing future breakouts. The formula uses glycolic acid (AHA) and white willow bark (BHA) so that you get the best of both worlds of exfoliating acids, sans physical abrasion. Plus, it’s infused with grapefruit extract, which is a hero ingredient in its own right:, it’s natural source of vitamin C, and it has a naturally (delicious) fruity scent.

Benefits: Exfoliates and unclogs pores | Skin Type: Oily, acne-prone | Dosage: 1-2 pumps | Size: 1 fl. oz | Cruelty-Free: Yes | Byrdie Clean: Yes

Best Drugstore: Neutrogena Rapid Wrinkle Repair Serum

Neutrogena Rapid Wrinkle Repair Serum
What We Like
  • Diminishes age lines cost-effectively

  • Leaves no facial residue

  • Gently exfoliates

What We Don't Like
  • Possibly unsuitable for sensitive skin

  • Strong perfume scent

For just-as-effective results (and far less money), try this well-reviewed option from Neutrogena. Its formula contains a blend of accelerated retinol SA, an ingredient that works to fight signs of photoaging like crow's-feet and forehead and cheek wrinkles, as well as brighten your skin's tone and enhance its texture.

In addition to its youth-boosting benefits, the formula also contains hyaluronic acid to plump and hydrate, replenishing moisture in your skin. Plus, it contains skin-barrier supporting glycerin, which acts as a humectant and helps to seal moisture into the skin while conditioning it.

Benefits: Smooths lines and evens out skin tone | Skin Type: Dry, aging | Size: 1 fl. oz | Cruelty-Free: No | Byrdie Clean: No

Best Anti-Aging: BioEffect EGF Serum

BioEffect EGF Serum
What We Like
  • Brings out youth in the skin

  • Highly hydrating

  • Radiates skin

What We Don't Like
  • Possibly expensive

This one is a doozy. See, it's known for (and won awards for) replenishing your body’s own natural supply of EGF (epidermal growth factor) and rejuvenates your skin cells, so it very literally helps to slow down the aging process. EGF is really important for your skin, as it helps skin cells boost the production of collagen and elastin to increase your body's capacity to retain water to maintain healthy, youthful skin.

The formula also boasts skin-plumping and hydration-boosting hyaluronic acid as well as glycerin, a powerful humectant that helps to draw moisture into the skin. Another amazing thing to note? It's so potent you don't even need to apply moisturizer on top of it. Just cleanse, tone, apply, and go.

Benefits: Hydrates and reduces fine lines| Skin Type: Dry, aging | Dosage: 2-4 drops | Size: 0.5 fl. oz | Cruelty-Free: No | Byrdie Clean: Yes

Best Calming: Dr. Barbara Sturm Calming Serum

Dr. Barbara Sturm Calming Serum
What We Like
  • Soothes the skin

  • Fights free radicals

  • Virtually fragrance-free

What We Don't Like
  • Possibly expensive

I've sung the praises of Dr. Barbara Sturm's Calming Serum about a million times before, but really, there's no end in sight. It's just a perfect formula. The serum incorporates an active, plant-based complex of Cardiospermum, echium, and sunflower and helps to rebalance and calm irritated skin and reduce redness and burning. Plus, it's chock-full of the brand's hero ingredient, purslane, to hydrate and protect sensitive cell membranes against free radical attack.

I use it after a peel, any abundant sun exposure, a late night, and when I'm experiencing jet lag, too much air conditioning, or exposure to pollution. It's even helpful for when you're just generally stressed out (because that can, in fact, show up on your face). Fun fact: Hailey Baldwin uses it each time she travels.

Benefits: Reduces redness | Skin Type: All | Dosage: One dropper-full of serum | Size: 1 fl. oz | Cruelty-Free: Yes | Byrdie Clean: Yes

Best Exfoliating: Tata Harper Resurfacing Serum

Tata Harper Resurfacing Serum
What We Like
  • Restores the skin

  • Has a light, pleasant scent

  • Gives the face a glow

What We Don't Like
  • Possibly expensive

  • Possibly unsuitable for sensitive skin

This serum from Tata Harper is a must for anyone with dull, lackluster skin. It’s formulated with nine different acids (incredible) made to create an instant glow on your skin. It's made with tomato carotenoids, an Israel-grown tomato that acts as a natural color corrector. It absorbs UVA and UVB and infrared light and when exposed to sunlight, it emits a green light (which neutralizes redness) to make your skin look brighter. The serum also includes squalane derived from olives, which conditions skin to restore softness and smoothness and helps keep your skin hydrated without leaving an oily residue.

Benefits: Refines skin texture | Skin Type: Oily, combination | Dosage: 1-2 pumps | Size: 1 fl. oz | Cruelty-Free: Yes | Byrdie Clean: Yes

Best for Breakouts: iS Clinical Active Serum

IS Clinical Active Serum
What We Like
  • A little goes a long way

  • Cools the skin

  • Hydrating

What We Don't Like
  • Possibly unsuitable for sensitive skin

Another anti-aging, anti-acne goodie, IS Clinical's Active Serum also adds brightening to the equation—making it pretty much a one-stop-shop for all skincare woes. Over time, it buffs away fine lines, reduces redness and breakouts, and even works on stubborn scars. Lindsey Metrus, our senior editor, is also a fan. She gushes, "Using a serum that's a one-two punch in terms of hydration and skin clarification is just about all I could want in a formula, and this cult-loved variation from IS Clinical delivers just that. Not only does my skin look dewy and fresh after repeated use, but it also keeps my breakouts at bay, especially when my cycle rolls around."

Benefits: Reduces hyperpigmentation and acne | Skin Type: All | Size: 1 fl. oz | Cruelty-Free: Yes | Byrdie Clean: No

What Our Testers Say

"The bilberry and sugarcane really work to exfoliate dead, dull surface cells, whereas the willow bark functions as salicylic acid, unclogging pores and eliminating the severity and frequency of breakouts. The arbutin is a fantastic addition too, as it lightens dark spots, and in my case, reduced the look of post-acne scarring. It feels super fresh, sinks in quickly, and gives results in as little as a week, too." —Emily Algar, Product Tester

Best for Discoloration: SkinCeuticals Discoloration Defense

SkinCeuticals
What We Like
  • Highly effective on discoloration

  • Helps to make the skin smooth

  • Has a gentle effect

What We Don't Like
  • Improvements might be too slow for some

As someone with sun damage and discoloration, I've found this SkinCeuticals offering to be a godsend. It uses 3% tranexamic acid to minimize the recurrence of discoloration, 1% kojic acid to boost your skin's brightness, 5% niacinamide (which is vitamin B3) to further reduce skin discoloration, and 5% hepes, an ingredient thought to help natural enzymes in your skin to help break the bonds that bind dead skin cells to the surface for a thorough, even exfoliation. In fact, in a 12-week clinical study, participants noticed an average improvement of 60% in the appearance of their stubborn brown patches. I use it each night before retinol and notice a real difference by morning. 

Benefits: Fades dark spots | Skin Type: All | Dosage: 3-5 drops | Size: 1 fl. oz | Cruelty-Free: No | Byrdie Clean: Yes

Best for Large Pores: Renée Rouleau Pore + Wrinkle Perfecting Serum

Perfecting Serum
What We Like
  • Works on more than just the face

  • Helps discoloration

  • Has an exfoliating effect

What We Don't Like
  • Possibly unsuitable for sensitive skin

One of Byrdie's most beloved estheticians, Renée Rouleau knows her stuff. So there was no doubt her Pore + Wrinkle Perfecting Serum was going to impress me. It's an exfoliating anti-aging serum, so it balances the needs of breakout-prone yet aging skin types, which is a sector of skincare that is surprisingly rare. Usually, you have to choose one or the other. Its potent blend of 17% glycolic, salicylic, and lactic acids work hard to clear clogged pores, reduce the appearance of large pores and fine lines, and fade discoloration from sun, hormones, and blemishes. Trust, you’ll find your skin clearer, brighter, smoother, and more balanced after using.

Benefits: Exfoliates and clears pores | Skin Type: Acne-prone | Dosage: 1-2 pumps | Size: 0.5 fl. oz | Cruelty-Free: Yes | Byrdie Clean: Yes

What Our Testers Say

"Even though it’s pretty potent, it’s one of the only serums I’ve tried in which I notice an actual difference in the brightness, clarity, and tone of my skin. I use it for three nights straight and then swap in another one for three nights, but this one always keeps my skin glowy while keeping my small (easily clogged pores) in check." Erin Jahns, Byrdie contributor

Best for Scars: Biologique Recherche Serum Placenta

Biologique Recherche Serum Placenta
What We Like
  • Heals the skin

  • Helps discoloration and dark spots

  • Pairs well with other products

What We Don't Like
  • Pump functionality needs work

Meant to heal and repair, Biologique Recherche's unique serum addresses stubborn skincare concerns like post-acne scarring, dark circles, and pigment spots. What's more, it actually works. I'd never noticed a difference in my dark circles (they're genetic) until I started using this serum. The formula contains 4 simple ingredients—water, hydrolyzed placental protein, phenoxyethanol, ethylhexylglycerin—and reconstructs your skin, expediting its natural healing process and restoring suppleness and tone where it once was.

Benefits: Fades scars and dark under-eye circles | Skin Type: All | Size: 1 fl. oz | Cruelty-Free: No | Byrdie Clean: Yes

Best for Oily Skin: Plant Apothecary Superfacial Organic, Superlight Oil Moisturizer for Oily Skin

Plant Apothecary Superfacial Organic, Superlight Oil Moisturizer
What We Like
  • Smooth consistency

  • Effective on combo skin

  • Cost-effective

What We Don't Like
  • Smell might turn some off

You may think that adding oil to oily skin would be counterproductive, but the right oil can actually help your skin stay hydrated and blemish-free without appearing greasy. This soothing, astringent formula features white tea seed oil, hazelnut oil, and antioxidant-rich pomegranate oil and discourages the overproduction of natural oils without skimping on hydration. Even better? It also boasts restorative ingredients, like sea buckthorn, juniper oil, and geranium oil, and can help heal oily and acne-prone skin without clogging pores.

Benefits: Moisturizes and helps control oil production | Skin Type: Oily | Dosage: 5 drops | Size: 1 fl. oz | Cruelty-Free: Yes | Byrdie Clean: Yes

Best for Acne-Prone Skin: THE ORDINARY Niacinamide 10% + Zinc 1%

The Ordinary Niacinamide 10% + Zinc 1%
What We Like
  • Tackles discoloration

  • Helps to shrink large pores

  • Cost-effective

What We Don't Like
  • Might leave some residue

Both of the namesake ingredients in this blemish buster help to keep skin clear in their own way. Niacinamide (also known as vitamin B3) is a top pick for helping to reduce redness and inflammation (both of which often come with a pimple), and also brightens skin tone, too.

Meanwhile, zinc is a mineral that helps balance out oil production, always a good thing if you’re acne-prone. Use a few drops all over, though it’s worth noting that if you’re using any other skin products with vitamin C, it’s best to alternate since niacinamide can affect the integrity of vitamin C. Reviewers comment on not only how it keeps their skin clear, but also how much it tamps down oil and minimizes the look of their pores.

Benefits: Clears skin | Skin Type: Acne-prone | Size: 1 fl. oz | Cruelty-Free: Yes | Byrdie Clean: Yes

What Our Testers Say

"Though it doesn’t advertise itself specifically for the reduction of under-eye circle appearance, The Ordinary Niacinamide + Zinc has drastically reduced the darkness of my under-eye circles." — Ariane Resnick, CNC, Product Tester

Best Hydrating: SkinCeuticals Hydrating B5 Gel

SkinCeuticals Hydrating B5 Gel
What We Like
  • Provides hydration

  • Adds a glow to the face

  • Smooths out the skin

What We Don't Like
  • A tad bit expensive

So yes, I added another SkinCeuticals product. But I just can't get enough of its serums. They are genuinely incredible and work so well together or separately. I use this one like a shot of moisture to my thirsty skin. It's formulated with a rich dose of hyaluronic acid and tissue-repairing vitamin B5, and it's so refreshing to apply. It works to restore and bind moisture to your skin, adding suppleness and bounce. I layer it on top of my vitamin C serum in the morning and post-retinol at night. 

Benefits: Hydrates skin | Skin Type: All | Dosage: 2-3 drops | Size: 1 fl. oz | Cruelty-Free: No | Byrdie Clean: Yes

What Our Testers Say

The texture is great, and it plumps fine lines, boosts the skin’s moisture content, and improves barrier health.” — Emily Algar, Product Tester

Best Organic: Vintner's Daughter Active Botanical Serum

Vintner's Daughter Active Botanical Serum
What We Like
  • Suitable for many skin types

  • Heals the skin

  • Rich in nourishment

What We Don't Like
  • Expensive

A cult-favorite serum in its own right, Vintner's Daughter Active Botanical Serum offers 22 active, organic, and wild-crafted botanicals to nourish your skin. Its formula includes phytonutrients, antioxidants, vitamins, and essential fatty acids and omega-3, -6, -7, and -9 to nourish, heal, and repair the skin. In other words, it's the real deal, folks—so much so the brand only makes two products. That's how well it works.

Benefits: Hydrates and nourishes | Skin Type: All | Dosage: 5-6 drops | Size: 1 fl. oz | Cruelty-Free: Yes | Byrdie Clean: Yes

What Our Editor's Say

"I’ve been using this beloved serum for years after a fellow beauty editor recommended it to me, and it’s been a staple in my routine ever since. Even though it feels more like an oil than a serum, it doesn’t break my skin out the way other face oils do. Instead, it leaves my skin looking smooth and glowy every time. I like to dispense a few drops into my hands and rub them together to activate the serum, as the brand suggests before I press it into my face. I can’t say for sure if this application method actually makes the product more effective, but it does make me feel fancy." Karli Bendlin, Senior Editor

Best Multitasker: Coola Organic Sunless Tan Anti-Aging Face Serum

Coola Organic Sunless Tan Anti-Aging Face Serum
What We Like
  • Adds a glow to the face

  • Smooths the skin

  • Creates a supple look

What We Don't Like
  • Might have a drying effect

What's better than an anti-aging serum? An anti-aging serum that leaves you glowing, as if you've just come back from a week at the beach. Not only is this vegan and lightweight serum packed with hyaluronic acid and plant cell cultures, but it'll help hydrate, smooth, and add elasticity to the skin. It also contains dihydroxyacetone, an Ecocert-approved natural tanning ingredient derived from sugar beet that provides a gradual sun-kissed glow.

Benefits: Gives skin a glow | Skin Type: All | Dosage: 2-3 pumps | Size: 1.7 fl. oz | Cruelty-Free: Yes | Byrdie Clean: Yes

Best Splurge: La Prairie Skin Caviar Crystalline Concentré

Skin Caviar Crystalline Concentre
What We Like
  • Adds a glow to the face

  • Makes the skin supple

  • Made with natural plant extracts

What We Don't Like
  • Improvements possibly too gentle for some

  • Very expensive

At first glance, this serum literally shimmers. The formula is infused with plant extracts, vitamin C, and licorice and helps brighten the skin. It contains diamonds (!), liquid quartz crystals (!!), and caviar extract (!!!) to reignite your skin's luminosity. It also strengthens the moisture barrier, firming and smoothing, and lifting existing wrinkles, preventing new ones, and offering a subtle glow immediately after application. It's luxury at its finest (which explains the price), and it really, really works. 

Benefits: Lifts and firms | Skin Type: Aging | Dosage: 1-2 drops | Size: 1 fl. oz | Cruelty-Free: No | Byrdie Clean: No

Runner-Up, Best Splurge: SkinMedica TNS Essential Serum

SkinMedica TNS Essential Serum
What We Like
  • Calm on the skin

  • Adds a glow to the face

  • Brings out youth to the skin

What We Don't Like
  • Improvements possibly too gentle for some

A favorite of more beauty editors than I can name in one sitting, SkinMedica's TNS Essential Serum is shockingly effective. It's practically mind-blowing. Its formula boasts growth factors, antioxidants, and a protein- and amino acid-rich complex and will help reduce inflammation, regenerate skin cells, strengthen the skin, and restore that ever-elusive glowy, youthful flush.

Benefits: Smooths and firms skin | Skin Type: Aging | Size: 1 fl. oz | Cruelty-Free: Yes | Byrdie Clean: No

Best for Hyperpigmentation: Rose Ingleton MD Complexion Brightening Booster

Rose Ingleton MD
What We Like
  • Tackles dark spots

  • Made with fruit acids

  • Smooths out wrinkles

What We Don't Like
  • Possibly expensive

Dealing with acne-prone skin often creates a cycle of trying to prevent new breakouts while healing the scarring from past blemishes, and this serum from Rose Ingleton MD tackles both concerns. The highly concentrated formula is potent: It infuses a radiance-inducing blend of citric, malic, and lactic acids with the collagen-stimulating benefits of peptides, meaning it’ll help brighten and smooth discolored skin without ever clogging your pores, all while packing a youth-boosting punch. The results: a glow that you're sure to notice.

Benefits: Fades dark spots | Skin Type: All | Size: 1 fl. oz | Cruelty-Free: Yes | Byrdie Clean: Yes

Final Verdict

Okay, so rest assured Hallie's list is FULL of A-grade serum options. It’s hard to play favorites, but because we have to, we’re going to call out the Skinceuticals CE Ferulic for its unmatched brightening and skin-evening powers, the IS Clinical Active Serum for being one of the greatest clarifying serums out there, and Dr. Barbara Sturm’s Calming Serum. Not only is it milky and light, but it contains a cocktail of plant actives to truly calm and soothe the complexion. 

SkinCeuticals C E Ferulic

 Byrdie / Jenna Igneri

What to Look For in a Facial Serum


Key Ingredients

This will really depend on your skin concerns and goals. You can buy a serum that focuses on a single ingredient, or combines a few. Another option is to use one formulation in the morning, and something different before bed. Nourishing, hydrating, protective ingredients are great during the day (think hyaluronic acid and antioxidants like vitamin C) whereas resurfacing or super nourishing options work a treat at night (vitamin A, AHAs, BHAs, and peptides are all great). 

To help you get started, Dr. Barbara Strum, aesthetics doctor and founder of her eponymous skincare line, recommends hyaluronic acid as a great ingredient for almost all skin types, especially those prone to dehydration. For skin types that are prone to congestion, zinc, niacinamide, and salicylic acid (a form of BHA) are all great options. For uneven skin tone, vitamin C, vitamin E, ferulic acid, and niacinamide will help. Finally, for those concerned with lines and wrinkles, vitamin A and its many derivatives (retinol, retinoic acid, retinoids) will be your best friend. You can also try peptides and amino acids for an extra boost. 

The Price

It’s important to keep in mind that because serums often contain higher concentrations of active ingredients, the price point is generally higher. That’s not to say you have to fork out an arm and a leg for a quality product, but they tend to sit higher than a cleanser or sunscreen.  

SkinCeuticals C E Ferulic
Byrdie / Hallie Gould
FAQ
  • What is a face serum?

    Serums, which are thinner in texture, are results-driven and are formulated so that they can penetrate the deeper layers of the skin to target certain skin concerns. They often contain a combination of efficacious ingredients like vitamin C, vitamin A, niacinamide, or hydroxy acids.

  • How do you apply face serum?

    According to Dr. Sturm, you should apply serums onto “cleansed skin immediately after drying to avoid trans-epidermal water loss, and before a day or night cream.” Sturm explains that serums precede but do not replace a moisturizer (a moisturizer or face cream should be applied over the top to seal everything in).

  • How often should you use face serum?

    “As often as your skin requires it,” explains Sturm, who layers her Hyaluronic Serum twice daily, plus the Super Anti-aging Serum and Night Serum additionally before bed. A good rule of thumb is to use a serum both morning and night as part of your skincare routine.

  • Do I even need a face serum?

    No one really needs a face serum, but if you’re hoping to achieve a certain skincare goal or improve skin health, a potent, targeted serum is probably your best bet.

Meet the Expert

Dr. Barbara Sturm is a German aesthetics doctor and the founder of the cult-favorite Dr. Barbara Sturm skincare range. She began her career in orthopedics before bringing her clinical research and knowledge into the skincare world.

According to our Diversity Pledge, 15% of products in our newly-published market roundups will feature Black-owned and/or Black-founded brands. At the time of publishing, we were not able to find enough face serums from a Black-owned and/or Black-founded business to meet this percentage. If you know of one we should consider, please email us at contact@byrdie.com and we will evaluate the product ASAP.

Article Sources
Byrdie takes every opportunity to use high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial guidelines to learn more about how we keep our content accurate, reliable and trustworthy.
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  2. Khalil S, Bardawil T, Stephan C, et al. Retinoids: a journey from the molecular structures and mechanisms of action to clinical uses in dermatology and adverse effects. J Dermatolog Treat. 2017;28(8):684-696. doi:10.1080/09546634.2017.1309349

  3. Becker LC, Bergfeld WF, Belsito DV, et al. Safety Assessment of Glycerin as Used in CosmeticsInt J Toxicol. 2019;38(3_suppl):6S-22S. doi: 10.1177/1091581819883820

  4. Barone F, Bashey S, Woodin Jr. FW. Clinical Evidence of Dermal and Epidermal Restructuring from a Biologically Active Growth Factor Serum for Skin RejuvenationJ Drugs Dermatol. 2019;18(3):290-295.

  5. Desta M, Molla A, Yusuf Z. Characterization of Physico-Chemical Properties and Antioxidant Activity of Oil from Seed, Leaf and Stem of Purslane (Portulaca Oleracea L.)Biotechnology Reports. 2020;27:e00512. doi: 10.1016/j.btre.2020.e00512

  6. Sethi A, Kaur T, Malhotra S, Gambhir M. Moisturizers: The Slippery RoadIndian J Dermatol. 2016;61(3):279. doi: 10.4103/0019-5154.182427 

  7. Campos V, Pitassi L, Kalil C, Gonçalves Júnior JE, Sant'Anna B, Correia P. Clinical evaluation of the efficacy of a facial serum containing dioic acid, glycolic acid, salicylic acid, LHA, citric acid, and HEPES in treating post-inflammatory hyperchromia and controlling oily skin in patients with acne vulgaris. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2021;20(6):1766-1773. doi:10.1111/jocd.14016

  8. Tang SC, Yang JH. Dual Effects of Alpha-Hydroxy Acids on the Skin. Molecules. 2018;23(4):863. doi:10.3390/molecules23040863

  9. Bierman JC, Laughlin T, Tamura M, et al. Niacinamide Mitigates SASP‐Related Inflammation Induced by Environmental Stressors in Human Epidermal Keratinocytes and SkinInt J Cosmet Sci. 2020;42(5):501-511. doi: 10.1111/ics.12651

  10. Gupta M, Mahajan VK, Mehta KS, Chauhan PS. Zinc therapy in dermatology: a review. Dermatol Res Pract. 2014;2014:709152. doi:10.1155/2014/709152

  11. Amano K, Xiao K, Wuerger S, Meyer G. A colorimetric comparison of sunless with natural skin tan. PLoS One. 2020;15(12):e0233816. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0233816

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